The Keto diet. Everyone’s talking about it, and quite frankly, I’m sick of it. But not for the reasons you may think.
This blog post is an attempt to clarify, based on my best research, WHAT the Keto diet is and is not. Who it’s for, why it’s useful or not, and why everyone keeps screwing up on it.
If you’re looking for a doctor to explain it, I’m not your girl. BUT I’m a person who’s been around it for a few years (before it was “cool”) and has spoken to many of the top experts in the study of it.
So… let’s get into this.
What is the Keto diet?
First of all, if you ignore tabloids or news in general, this word is probably new to you. Hang on tight, because you’re about to think I’m joking.
Let’s get a basic definition of Keto going here.
The Keto diet, in its raw form, is a very-high-fat, very-low-carb diet. The goal is to use fat as the body’s main fuel source, as well as ketones as a secondary fuel source. Ketones are byproducts of the burning of fat, thus the name: Ketogenic Diet.
The most baseline, original (OG) Keto macronutrient breakdown looks like this:
- 80% fat
- 15% protein
- 5% carbs
Yep. 5% of your total calorie intake can be carbs. That literally leaves room for the fiber in leafy greens and the occasional (small) handful of nuts.
Like I already mentioned, this is the first form of the diet. There are several other forms of it, and probably hundreds of off-shoots since the explosion of its popularity in 2017-2018.
History of the Keto diet
Let’s back this bitch up a second. How did this crazy Keto thing even come about?
This diet was originally used to treat epilepsy. Yep, you read that right. It drastically reduces (or eliminates) occurrence of seizures in those suffering from this terrible disorder.
It’s been used for decades, and isn’t new news for those in this specialized area of medicine.
This was because compounds in the blood that are highly produced in times of fasting – ketones – are also produced & used on a high-fat, very-low-carb diet. There are certain cognitive benefits from them that keep epileptics from seizing (2).
Some of the “credible” variations of Keto (based on what I’ve seen) are:
These guys tend to promote a higher protein intake than the original Keto diet, and possibly a bit higher carb intake based on activity level.
Their macronutrient breakdowns tend to be higher-protein than OG Keto, but that doesn’t mean they completely shun that form of Keto if that’s what the client needs.
They’re all about making this diet work for you, not forcing yourself to stick to rules that may not be serving you as an individual.
The philosophy driving this approach is “chase results, not ketones.” I’ll get into what they mean by this a little later, but know for now that a lot of people spend a ton of their time on Keto obsessing over their ketone levels, regardless of how their physique or blood work is changing as a result of their fat intake.
Yep, the Paleo guy has been following (and LOVING) Keto this past year and a half. Robb is a biochemist who found health after a childhood ridden with disease, simply by changing the way he ate.
His approach to Keto is closer to what the Ketogains guys do, too, and he’s been working with them lately to dispel a lot of the anti-protein dogmas surrounding the diet (more on that later). He is also a proponent of eating a more Paleo-based Keto, AKA a dairy-free version.
He has a Keto Masterclass out now that covers all he’s learned and discovered on his own trials with the diet, as well as how he and his wife’s bodies react to the diet differently.
This is based on blood glucose testing methods he outlined in his latest book, Wired to Eat.
Leanne Vogel is a self-experimented Keto aficionado. After spending years without a period because of her disordered eating patterns, she finally found hormonal balance and a happy place with her body when she began eating more fat.
While she’s not a practitioner, Leanne has developed 4 solid approaches to the Keto diet – including the OG one I mentioned earlier – based on different coaching clients she’s seen over the years.
She is also one of the few Keto advocates who specializes in optimizing female hormones on the diet (HINT: They’re harder to tweak than men’s hormones!)
Founded by Cavin Balaster, who healed himself from traumatic brain injury when he had a 90% chance of being in a vegetative state the rest of his life, Feed a Brain is working to seek how ketosis can be used for others with brain injury.
TBI and CTE have been huge news stories lately, and Cavin’s protocol has shown promise in many case studies besides himself.
Stephanie is one of the only people I know of who’s been on a strict, OG Keto diet for over a decade.
So, while she’s not a “variation” of traditional Keto, I’ve included her in this list because she’s one of the few case studies of what it can do for someone long-term. And she’s made a few discoveries that not many others have about the diet & its sustainability.
She has helped hundreds of clients over these years to figure out how to make OG Keto work for them, and has figured out several reasons why it might not be working for them.
Ever heard of “viable ketones?” Yeah, she has. She helps you figure out if your body is even using the ketones it produces properly. That might be helpful…
Yes, this is Jordan B. Peterson’s daughter. The family has been rocking the BOAT this year in more ways than one – but don’t discredit this girl’s health advice.
Mikhaila was always a very sick child, and since adopting a very-low-carb diet, has since healed from pretty much all her autoimmune issues. She even has a child of her own now, which is something her doctors never thought would happen.
Mikhaila falls into the “variations” category because, since January, she’s been doing a carnivore diet. Yep. Meat only. And she’s seen an even greater improvement in her health markers since adopting a 0-carb lifestyle.
Very interesting to follow, indeed.
Why the low protein?
There is a process the body can cue when it's low in glucose for fuel called gluconeogenesis.
I know that sounds crazy, but:
- Gluco = sugar
- neo = new
- genesis = creation
So this word literally means "the creation of new sugar."
This is a process that many Keto advocates fear when it comes to protein consumption. Because the cellular process of burning sugar is so much faster than the one that burns fat, the body would rather break down protein, turn it into sugar, and burn THAT before it switches to burning fat.
However, the amounts of protein needed to cause this aren't super conclusive and this logic is being whittled away daily as more research comes out on the rate at which this happens at all when an individual is in a Keto state.
What are the benefits of going Keto?
I will do my best to hit on each of these, but if you want the tl;dr version of why everyone’s losing their shit about keto, here’s a listicle like everyone loves:
- Decreased and/or eliminated occurrence of seizures in those with epilepsy
- Increased fat burning
- Easier fat loss (in conjunction with caloric deficit)
- Increased athletic performance in endurance sports
- Increased mental clarity & performance (as well as TBI repair)
- Improved cellular function & metabolism
- Improved cellular cleaning & protein recycling
- Improved blood glucose regulation
This is a hefty topic, so I tried to organize everything in the best way possible: with common questions I get when I talk with people about what exactly Keto is (and is NOT – there’s so much damn misinformation out there).
Let’s get to it!
How do I know if I’m doing Keto the right way?
OH boy. This can of worms is the exact one I did not want to open, but also the main reason for this blog post.
First of all, you need to ask yourself: why are you going Keto? That first question will be the leader for all the following rabbit holes.
Weight loss/body composition
If you’re doing Keto for weight loss (as many are), please please PLEASE don’t listen to any of the “thought leaders” who tell you that calories don’t matter as long as your macronutrient percentages are right.
If that were the case, everyone who tried this diet and followed the breakdowns properly would be having massive success and I don’t know why anyone would quit doing it.
There is some research that suggests nutrient quality can influence (3) how our bodies burn the calories we’re eating. And there are other studies (4) showing that when those calories are good-quality fat, our metabolism may be better at using that fuel (and not storing it).
HOWEVER. Don’t lead yourself into this dietary protocol thinking you can eat 5,000 calories (kCal) of high-quality fatty foods a day, with an activity level of 2,000 kCal a day, and expect to lose weight. At some point, a “fast metabolism” will be outrun by overconsumption. And “some point” comes a lot sooner than you want it to.
The bottom line is this: if you’re doing Keto for fat or weight loss, track what you’re eating at first. You’ll get the hang of it after about a month and be able to eyeball things from there – if that’s preferred to you. As someone who dealt with obsessive macronutrient tracking for a long time, I get why you wouldn’t want to do this for long.
Better fat burning (i.e. metabolic flexibility) (5)
I would contend this to be the best benefit of going keto, and highly suggest anyone “going Keto” to first start with this in mind. Even if weight loss is the goal.
My month-long trial of Keto was done with this as the main goal, and I’m happy for the results of it, even today (about a year later).
This goal means that you want to train the body’s cells to burn fat more efficiently. While fat renders more energy per gram than carbs (which is why 1g of fat is 9kCal versus 4kCal for 1g of carbs), that energy is a LOT harder for the body to unlock.
The cellular process of unleashing those 9kCal of energy is much slower, so by default the body always turns to any carbohydrates (sugars) in the body first before switching to fat metabolism.
And if the body is never forced to learn how to speedily transition to fat metabolism, then you will constantly be seeking out foods with carbohydrate energy in them.
So how do you force the body to learn how to rapidly turn on fat metabolism? But cutting out all other fuel options. Hence, the very-low-carb approach of Keto.
Increased athletic performance
This is a sticky one for Keto.
The body can only store about 2,500kCal of carbohydrate energy at a given time, but we have multiple weeks’ worth of energy stored as fat in our bodies at any given time. So it would make sense for coaches to want their athletes to have the ability to tap into that energy store and power through competitions without needing glucose sticks and Gatorade, right?
Well… duh. But remember those cellular processes I just mentioned? The types of fuel the body can use for energy?
Those processes are what create such a split in whether anyone can agree on keto’s benefits for athletic performance.
Here’s why: while we can train the body to switch to fat-burning more efficiently, and even possibly go through the process of burning fat more quickly, the gap can only be closed so much. And that efficiency is directly related to how much of the OTHER macronutrients we're consuming... not necessarily eating more fat (8).
Endurance vs. Power sports
For endurance sports, like long-distance running, diet experts like Ben Greenfield have shown huge success with athletes on a Keto diet. This is because steady-paced events that take place over a longer period of time allow the body to dip back into fat-burning mode at a higher work load than resting, simply because the body adapts to the level of work you’re performing at.
A dip in performance should be expected while the athlete’s body adapts to Keto. But at about 3 months in (9), performance should be back to where it started and improvements can be observed from there.
This graph shows how, over the course of a few hours, a body will initially burn carbohydrates (the easy but extremely finite fuel) when a run begins, but will transition to fat as its main fuel source as the body adapts to the new (but reasonably consistent) workload being placed on it.
This same philosophy is what makes people say low-intensity exercise burns fat the best. It literally just means that your body is using the molecular fat in your body for a greater percentage of fuel than the percentage of fuel is coming from carbs. NOT that you’ll lose body fat (or weight) any faster. You’re technically in the highest percentage of “fat-burning mode” when you’re not moving at all. Again, the fat metabolism is such a slow process that the body would rather burn carbs first to bring immediate energy to your cells.
For power sports, it’s a different story. The explosiveness of weight lifting, HIIT, CrossFit, and sports of the like just canNOT quite be met with quick enough fat-burning to fuel it.
That is, while athletes in power sports do benefit from increased fat-burning capabilities of Keto reset periods and higher fat intake in general, they simply need some carbs in their diet some of the time to fuel the cellular need for fast energy in those explosive moments of their sport.
Many people do get away with long-term keto in these sports, but I can tell you those people aren’t the top performers.
When top athletes in those types of fields want to train their bodies to be more fat-metabolism adapted, they are best advised to do a longer period of Keto when they’re not heavily training, in the off-season. But when they’re in the throes of competition season and training hard, the speed of these sports simply demands carbohydrate intake.
Those amounts vary per person and sport, and may not be as high as traditional thought might say. But they do need those carbs.
Why does the Keto diet work for fat loss?
Keto has been making headlines all year thanks to its “magical weight loss benefits.”
Based on all the stuff I just mentioned about its ability to improve our fat burning capabilities, this makes sense.
But not for the reason you think.
Again, many people are confused about what “fat burning” means, so a major soap box I’m staying on throughout this post is the fact that YOU CAN BE A FAT BURNING MACHINE WITHOUT LOSING WEIGHT.
The body literally burns the food you just ate as its easiest source of fuel, so if you’re eating a lot of fat, the body will automatically be burning more fat. But that’s the dietary fat you just ate. And if you just ate way more than you’re burning, the body will still store the excess as body fat.
Throwing it back to the calorie intake “debate” (WHY is this a debate?), there needs to be caloric restriction along with high fat intake to effectively lose weight on Keto.
So, what makes Keto a better weight loss protocol than other calorie-dependent options?
Just to hammer it home once more: all options are calorie-dependent. Even if you’re not allowed to count calories on your protocol, like on Whole 30®, you’re losing weight because you’re unintentionally causing a calorie deficit.
The thing that makes a calorie deficit on Keto so much better than other options is the lack of hunger you feel on it because of the high fat intake.
Your hunger cues change. It will take a week or two for the body to start knowing how to burn the ketones as fuel that are a result of fat metabolism, but once it does… you never feel hungry (or full) anymore.
Never feeling hungry on a diet? Sign me UP.
Never feeling full again? Weird, but cool. It’s a “satisfied” feeling after you eat a Keto meal, but you don’t’ get the physical my-stomach-is-larger feeling that you get after a carb-heavy meal.
What are some side effects of going Keto?
The main side effects of someone transitioning to Keto are often referred to as the “Keto flu,” in which you literally exhibit flu-like symptoms as the body effectively drains itself of all remaining carbohydrate energy sources in a day or two, and then freaks out when there aren’t any more of them coming in.
This often looks like:
- Waking up in the middle of the night, or restless sleep in general
- A “hangry” feeling because the body doesn’t know how to burn fat super well yet
- Brain fog
- Sugar cravings
- Mood swings & irritability
- Stomach irritability
Keto flu is a big reason why those against Keto think it’s bad for you. They think it’s proof that if the body sort of makes itself sick at the beginning of a transition to Keto, it’s not good for us.
I would contend that we also have withdrawals from cocaine, and since sugar is more addictive than that… why wouldn’t we show withdrawal symptoms when we first cut it out?
Besides Keto flu, other side effects might be:
- Hormonal imbalance (especially with women, easily fixed with fine-tuning for either sex)
- Decreased maximal strength capacity (because this involves explosive energy)
- Increased cholesterol (but this is being widely disproven as a health indicator, and the “good” HDL cholesterol is usually what increases).
Who is the Keto diet good for?
Again, a list for the tl;dr version. Please note that I’m not a practitioner and these classifications should be taken on a case-by-case basis, working off YOUR blood work, how you feel, and what works best for YOU.
Those looking to lose weight without feeling hungry all the time
- Calorie deficit still required
- Expect a dip in performance the first few months before improvement sets in
Those looking to boost their brain health & clear “brain fog”
- Intermittent bouts of Keto also help with this
People with insulin resistance issues, including but not limited to:
- Pre-diabetes (or “metabolic syndrome”)
- Various liver pathologies
Who shouldn’t go on a Keto diet?
Again, not a practitioner and these classifications should be taken on a case-by-case basis, working off YOUR blood work, how you feel, and what works best for YOU.
- Power athletes who are training for a competition or are currently in their competition season.
- People who are SO metabolically dependent on carbs that the Keto flu may be too aggressive to handle right off the bat. Try stepping stones first; perhaps go Paleo and adjust to that before going full-blown Keto.
- Those who haven’t talked to their doctor (or at least had comprehensive blood work done) prior to beginning, and who don’t have a clear goal for why they want to try keto.
Ketosis vs. Ketoacidosis
The Keto diet got a bad reputation when it first became popular because of its confusion with ketoacidosis.
Ketoacidosis is a condition that diabetics are familiar with, and know they want to avoid.
But let’s get these definitions clear:
- Ketosis is a state of ketone production & use for fuel in the body, WITHOUT sugar in the blood to supply energy.
- Ketoacidosis is the state in which someone is producing & burning ketones for energy, WITH plenty of sugar in their system.
How does that happen?
Insulin resistance… most commonly found in the form of type 2 diabetes, which highlights perfectly what the definition of insulin resistance is.
Let’s break it down:
In a normally-functional body, when sugar enters the blood stream (after a typical, non-keto meal) the pancreas releases insulin to help it be shuttled into the cells for energy. Think of insulin as the key that unlocks the door the sugar needs to get through to deliver its energy to a cell.
When someone is insulin resistant, the keys start to jam. They’re mangled because they’ve been used too much from too many huge surges of sugar trying to knock down the door over the years. So the cells don’t want to let every key work anymore.
As a result, the pancreas is forced to pump out a higher amount of insulin each time there’s a sugar hit. Eventually, a team of keys will be able to break open the door to a cell here and there to get sugar into it. But not nearly enough to deal with all the extra sugar now piling around the blood, trying to get into cells that won’t unlock.
This is why diabetics have high resting blood sugar: their keys (insulin) aren’t working to get it into the cells efficiently anymore.
Since not enough cells are getting adequate fuel from the sugar in the body, even though it actually has too much sugar in it, the body starts producing ketones from stored body fat for fuel because it thinks the body is starving. But the body isn’t starving, and the cells are so used to burning sugar, that it doesn’t know what to do with the ketones.
This means the body ends up having BOTH high blood sugar AND high blood ketones… producing an extremely acidic environment, which leads to a host of unhealthy outcomes.
That acidic environment is where ketoacidosis got its name. It’s an acidic environment caused by BOTH high blood sugar AND high blood ketones at the same time.
With the Keto diet, you eliminate the blood sugar. So, the only acidic component in the blood is ketones. And the body learns how to use those as fuel within a few days of their production, and will prioritize them as fuel when sugar isn’t in the blood with them.
These are a booming new supplement industry since Keto is so big now.
Many companies promote them as the way to put you into “instant ketosis” and do, in my experience, make fasting and/or longer term keto easier.
However, don’t think that taking these means you’re Keto now.
Saying that almost sounds to me like puking after eating dessert to avoid all the calories.
Some professionals, like Nora Gedgaudas, even argue that taking exogenous ketones after a carb-heavy meal technically puts you into a medical state of ketoacidosis.
However, we can’t discount the benefits of exogenous ketones, either.
Like I said, they help me get through a fast with ease and even help make a transition into keto easier. Again, that’s not to say you should eat a plate of pasta and then top it off with some Kegenix. That’s missing the point.
BUT, I will say that when I tried Keto, I went from a low-carb Paleo diet to Keto, and would start my day with exogenous ketones for the first week or so to get used to the different type of energy and feeling ketones give you.
I also believe they helped me miss out on the Keto flu.
Now, I’ll use them on days when I’m traveling so I can reap the benefits of a fast without the “high” feeling I tend to hit on a fast once I get to about lunchtime. There are also some studies coming out now that highlight their cognitive benefits (10), even if the person taking them isn’t eating a strict Keto diet all the time (like me).
Fill a water bottle up with a serving of ketones, and I’m good. I’ll be just as productive as if I’d had a nice healthy meal to break the fast. And if you’re interested, Kegenix is my favorite brand.
Intermittent fasting & Keto
The change in hunger has already been mentioned in this post, but I feel it should be touched on the cellular benefits of fasting.
This can be its own blog topic (and maybe I’ll actually do that eventually) but long story short: the body’s cells are able to “clean” out extra things they normally can’t get to if they’re constantly working on digesting/using food for energy.
With fasting, we give our digestion a break and the cells have time to make sure they clear out some of the less-functionally-operating ones, recycle some excess protein in the body, and even boost their mitochondria numbers.
This means improved cellular function and energy metabolism. Plus, when you’re fasting, it’s the easiest way to tap into a true Ketotic state and be burning body fat, versus dietary fat.
In some new research, there have even been negative gut microbiome effects (6) of a very-high-fat Keto diet in rats on a Keto protocol. But, those seem to be prevented when the rats stay on the same calorie & macronutrient intake, but include time restricted eating windows (7) in their feeding protocol… AKA intermittent fasting.
That’s not to say these studies disprove Keto without intermittent fasting, but in my experience it just seems to make sense to include them as pieces of one and the same protocol.
Why do so many people fail on a Keto diet?
Quite simply, there are two main reasons I see this happening.
- The person isn’t doing it right
- They shouldn’t be doing Keto in the first place.
In the case of number 1, “right” depends on what your goals for Keto are.
Those seeking weight loss but not getting it are probably eating too much. Those who are athletes are probably not eating enough fat. Those who are trying to balance their hormones may actually be screwing them up more with the complete elimination of carbs.
When someone is experiencing the 2nd situation, it’s usually people trying Keto who want either weight loss or athletic improvements but have underlying hormonal issues they’re unaware of.
So, they push through the protocol, following it even though they feel like shit. And they completely ignore the cues their body is giving them to stop.
Yes, there are some transitional “downs” or dips in energy & performance when Keto is first adopted.
But if you’re 3 months in, still having Keto flu issues, feeling crappy, and not enjoying life… you’ve got other hormonal issues to address. Get with your doctor and test your blood work. You should be monitoring that regularly, anyway.
Find out what’s off, and do your research on how to fix it. If you don’t want to take the drugs your traditional doctor will probably recommend, seek a second opinion. Go to a naturopathic doctor that specializes in whatever hormones you’re having issues with. I don’t blame you in that case – that’s how I’d react, too. And exactly how I HAVE reacted with traditional doctors.
Personal experience with Keto
When I did strict Keto for a month, it was a strange mix of “wow this is incredible” and “wow I hate this.”
There are many reasons this could be, but the few that seemed most likely to me are:
- I favor power workouts and, like already mentioned, performance in those decreases on a Keto diet. The fact I only did Keto for a month means I was doing these workouts while in the “dip” of the benefits, so I’m sure that just made it feel worse.
- I’m a female with female hormones. Women with well-functioning hormones have an alright likelihood of doing well on keto, but my hormones are NOT well-functioning. So that probably didn’t help.
- I DID really like the mental clarity and the decreased hunger.
- I did NOT really like the decreased fullness feeling. It’s a different type of full… which meant I’d feel the same after one spoonful or a full jar of almond butter. Not good for me.
After my own trial, I decided to reincorporate some carbs – especially on heavy workout days. I’m still nowhere near high-carb, but I’m not keto-low-carb. This is where my body (and bloodwork) feels, looks, and performs best.
And isn’t that the whole goal, anyway?
One big Keto-confusion conclusion
So are you feeling like you’ve got more questions now that this post is over?
If the answer’s yes – dear GOD don’t tell me. This resource is a monster of points I’ve wanted to make about the Keto diet since it began booming. However, the resources I listed at the beginning of “Keto experts” are well worth looking into if you want more of the science/in-depth stuff.
If you take nothing else from this post, please at least remember these 5 things:
- Ketosis and ketoacidosis are different things. Ketosis can be beneficial, ketoacidosis never is.
- LISTEN TO YOUR BODY. If you’re in ketosis but you feel like shit (after the initial “dip” period) – STOP.
- If you’re doing Keto for weight loss, CALORIES DO COUNT. And don’t fear more protein than classic Keto dictates.
- Taking exogenous ketones will “put you into ketosis” but it’s an artificial form. These supplements are beneficial in and of themselves for cognitive enhancement, but if you’re using them as a way to “get out of jail free” after a plate of pasta, you’re probably actually closer to a state of ketoacidosis than actual ketosis.
- Above all else, trading out less-processed foods for cleaner, more natural foods is going to help your health no matter what. If keto doesn’t work for you, don’t sweat it – it’s probably a way stricter protocol than most of us need to follow, anyway.
And that’s finally all from me… for now. Please share this amongst your Keto-confused friends - I made it as a resource for everyone who's sick of going down all these rabbit holes each time they're asked about the Keto Diet.
Hopefully that was achieved here and if there's something missing, please comment below!
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(2) McNally, M.A., Hartman, A.L. (2012). Ketone bodies in epilepsy. Journal of Neurochemistry, 121 (1). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3969728/
(3) n.a., (n.d.). The best diet: quality counts. Harvard T.H. Chan. Retrieved from https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/healthy-weight/best-diet-quality-counts/
(4) St. Onge, M. P., Bosarge, A., (2008). Weight-loss diet that includes consumption of medium-chain triacylglycerol oil leads to a greater rate of weight and fat mass loss than does olive oil. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87 (3). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2874190/
(5) Galgani, J.E., Moro, C., Ravussin, E., (2008). Metabolic flexibility & insulin resistance. Physiology.org. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2584808/
(6) Cani, P.D., et. al., (2007). Selective increases of bifidobacteria in gut microflora improve high-fat-diet-induced diabetes in mice through a mechanism associated with endotoxaemia. Diabetologia, 50 (11). Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-007-0791-0?__hstc=209342221.cad23cdf89637a97c833078f3dec9d96.1462492800047.1462492800048.1462492800049.1&__hssc=209342221.1.1462492800050&__hsfp=1314462730
(7) Hatori, M. et. al., (2012). Time-Restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet. Cell Metabolism, 15 (6). Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1550413112001891
(8) Jebb, S.A., et. al., (1996). Changes in macronutrient balance during over- and underfeeding assessed by 12-d continuous whole-body calorimetry. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64 (3). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8780332
(9) Phinney, S.D., (2004). Ketogenic diets & physical performance. Nutrition & Metabolism 1 (2). Retrieved from https://nutritionandmetabolism.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-7075-1-2
(10) Cunnane, S. C., (2016). Can ketones help rescue brain fuel supply in later life? Implications for cognitive health during aging and the treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2016.00053/full